|Replica putter, left. Tom Morris putter, circa 1870, right, with weights in rear of club.|
|The "lead" weight on this modern replica is actually a mixture of bismuth and tin instead of the traditional lead.|
Clubmakers added weight to the club by pouring in molten lead into a cavity in the back of the club. A simple trough would not have any mechanism to prevent the lead from dislodging, so it was held in place by one of two methods. One method was to have intersecting holes drilled beyond the main cavity to retain the lead.
Another method was to drill holes obliquely that were then tapped with a screw, with the thread pattern retaining the lead.
In Horace Hutchinson's 1899 The Book of Golf and Golfers, J. H. Taylor describes the process in great detail:
|Saw the straight part of the edges|
|Edges sawn. Ready for gouge|
Because the density of the bismuth and tin alloy is less than lead, instead of a "V" cavity, I made more of a "U" to accept more molten metal. Two different clubheads are shown below. J. H. Taylor left the recommendation of the groove depth "to your judgment". On my first club, my judgement was a bit off as the club came out a bit too light.
|The latest club I made has a larger groove.|
David Stirk's book, Golf: The Great Clubmakers, shows an alternative method to prevent the lead from dislodging by drilling intersecting holes (rather than threaded holes) beyond the main cavity to retain the lead.
|Two methods of retaining the lead weight in the clubhead. Intersecting holes,right, were more common. |
J.H. Taylor used threaded holes, left.
|The pick in one hole can be seen through the other|
Pouring the "Lead"
Now that the groove is made, we need to pour the "lead". Instead of lead for my replica clubs, I decided to use a bismuth and tin alloy (rotometals alloy 281-338F) which looks similar to lead, has a low melting point and is safer than lead. It is also cold fusible, which means that if a void is present, more molten alloy can be added to the existing metal. The disadvantages are that it is expensive at $20 a pound, not easily removed with hand tools and about 3/4 the weight of lead.
Clay is placed to contain the molten metal (use real clay, not Play-Doh, like I did on my first attempt, unless you want a gooey mess).
|The bismuth and tin alloy is quite a bit harder than lead, so I resorted to a drum sander.|
Wear a respirator.
|Finished putter with metal alloy weight.|