Thursday, August 31, 2017

Using a Trapping Plane and The Stanley 77 Dowel Maker to Make a Tapered Dowel (Golf Shaft)

CCASIONALLY, I still get sidetracked from "standard" woodworking to make graceful replica mid-19th century long nose golf clubs. There are two main parts of the golf club, the clubhead and the shaft. I enjoy making the clubheads, but the shaft had been another story. The shaft is made of hickory, and as you know, working with hickory using hand tools requires frequent sharpening and more sweat. On a prior post, I showed about a half dozen methods of creating the golf shaft which typically tapers from 3/4" to about 1/2". These methods could be used to make chair spindles, pool cues or whatever. The traditional method for a clubmaker of the era was to use a hand plane to taper the shaft followed by a spokeshave. Near the end of the 19th century, the clubmaker often purchased the shafts from a factory that used a lathe. This would have allowed him more time to tend to his other duties as keeper of the greens, caddying, playing for prize money and setting up member tournaments. I believe that since shafts were often purchased, explanations in books regarding shaft making are lacking as opposed to clubhead making. Also, with golf shafts often 43" or more, a lathe that large would not be common either in a 19th century golf shop or a modern home woodshop.

The shaft of this circa 1870 replica long nose putter, tapering from 3/4" to 1/2", 
was made with a trapping plane and a hand crank

Five time Open Champion J. H. Taylor spent 15 pages discussing clubhead making and only 2 sentences on the shaft. From The Book of Golf and Golfers, Horace Hutchinson, 1899. My guess is that Mr. Taylor did not enjoy making shafts and purchased them.
Here is a method to make a tapered dowel, or golf shaft, using the Ashem Crafts standard trapping plane combined with a hand crank. The nice thing about the trapping plane is that even if the dowel or shaft is bowed, it poses no problem (as opposed to using a lathe even with a steady rest). Shafts are often a bit bowed after riving the stock since the grain may not run perfectly straight. Additionally, the aggressiveness of the shavings is easily adjusted by the amount of pressure applied to the tool. Of all of the methods I have worked with to make a wooden golf shaft, this is the most efficient and enjoyable for me.

The standard trapping plane from Ashem Crafts

This shaft was pretty badly bowed but still could be handled with the trapping plane

My Stanley 77 dowel maker now works double duty, not only making a 3/4" rod, but also serving as a hand crank after a simple modification. There is a video of the Stanley 77 dowel maker on that prior post

The modification is needed so that the 3/4" dowel turns when the  crank is turned. Normally, with the Stanley 77, the stock is stationary with the cutter rotating like a crank-type pencil sharpener.

After poking around The Home Depot, I was fortunate to discover that standard gas pipe fittings fit the thread on the drive shaft for the cutter. I used a 1" x 1/2" coupling-reducing fitting. The larger opening threads on to the crankshaft, while the smaller hole is 3/4". Three threaded holes were tapped into the fitting to grab the dowel.

Normal setup of Stanley 77 with a 3/4" cutter

About to place adapter

1"x1/2" coupling-reducing fitting with threaded
holes for retaining bolts, perfect for a 3/4" dowel
The folks from Ashem Crafts were kind enough to provide a schematic to make your own hand crank from a bicycle crank; or you have the option to purchase their hand crank, known as a twizzler. Certainly, the driving mechanism need not be human powered. The Stanley 77 can be hooked up to a motor.  In fact, you can easily use different ratchet adapters placed onto a squared off end of the dowel and stick this in a drill, shown below.

Trapping plane - motorized

The stock should be turning away from you. If you want to use a trapping plane with a lathe, you'll need to run the lathe in reverse or purchase a trapping plane specifically oriented for a lathe.

How did they manufacture golf shafts in the late 19th century?

Descriptions of golf shaft making prior to the late 1800's described the use of riven wood. Initially, during the ash shaft era prior to about 1820, the shafts seemed to have been formed with drawknives and spokeshaves. Once hickory started to be imported to Scotland around 1820, the non-green timber was formed into shafts with planes. The lathe was not used until the last quarter of the 19th century. As a youth, the 1893 Open Champion, Willie Auchterlonie, served as the human power for clubmaker Robert Wilson's lathe aound 1880.
Excerpt from Great Golfers in the Making, Henry Leach, 1907
Interestingly, the mechanically powered method using a lathe has been cited as the method of manufacturer of golf shafts in the late 1800's, but further details are often lacking. Did they use woodturning gouges with the lathe? Not sure. But, it seems to me that renowned clubmaker Robert Forgan indeed used a trapping plane. In the 1897 edition of the Golfing Annual, there is a description of Forgan and his methods. The ring plane, by its brief description below, seems to be a type of trapping plane. I have come up empty trying to find any further information about a ring plane.

Article originally appearing in the 1897 Golfing Annual
and also in the St. Andrews Citizen, Dec 22, 1900, upon Forgan's death.
Forgan purchased his gasoline powered lathe in 1882 followed later by a copying lathe and supplied shafts and raw clubheads to many professionals, including Old Tom Morris, who then refined and assembled them and stamped their own names on the clubs.          


Here is a nice vintage British Pathé movie short showing a guy that really knows how to use a trapping plane to make a Brazilian greenheart fishing rod.

Some terminology for similar devices:

Rounder plane: fixed diameter plane to make a dowel

Stail engine, adjustable rounder, turning plane or witchet: adjustable diameter rounding plane that adjusts by turning a pair of screws
Trapping plane: adjustable diameter rounding plane that adjusts in real time using a lever mechanism.

From The Golfers, by Charles Lees, 1847
Illuminated letter by Thomas Hodge from Golf, The Badminton Library

Wednesday, April 12, 2017

Metamorphic Library Chair

The prior post discusses the history of the metamorphic furniture of Morgan and Sanders. Like the Londoners of the early 19th century, I too caught the craze and built a chair that converts into a set of library steps.  Having a decent golf book collection extending up to a 9 foot ceiling, I was grabbing the kitchen stool each time to reach the top shelf. Certainly, with the amount of time I spent building the chair, I could have run back and forth to the kitchen over a thousand times. Did I really need to make this gadget? No. But, isn't a Morgan and Sanders style metamorphic library chair more hip than a kitchen stool?

The chair quickly transforms into a set of steps via hinges located along the top of the front legs.

In terms of the woodworking itself, the project was an exercise in mortise and tenon joinery. There are close to 40 of these joints, only a few of which were not angled or curved. Some of the mortise and tenons were hand cut completely, others were made with a router jig, some were in combination using power and hand tools. The crest rail was affixed using 1/2" dowels and smaller dowels were used to connect the back splat to the crest rail and rail below. The main lesson learned here is to consider the best timing to cut the joinery. Sometimes, the mortise and tenons should be cut while the stock is still square. Also, some of the curved pieces have flat sections to make the joinery simpler. For example, the back leg has a flat section at the level of the side rail as well as at the level of the arm rest. Similarly, there is a flat plateau along the top of the side rail to accept the support for the armrest support.

Flat sections on curved pieces simplifies the joinery.
Other parts of the chair do not allow for flattened surfaces. To make the angled curved shoulder for the bottom rail into the curved leg, the shoulder was cut on an angle tangent to the curve. A trace amount of the center of the shoulder was then hollowed out with sandpaper with trial and error. Some curves were so subtle that the shoulders were not hollowed out at all.

Old chair template. I did not intend to make a faithful reproduction of the Morgan and Sanders chair. I almost forgot that my dad had this old chair in a spare bedroom which he let me borrow to use to create the foundations of the template of the sides of the chair. Notice that the sides of this chair are coplanar. All of the rails that run side to side, rather than front to back, will need to be joined with angled mortise and tenons

Plywood template in the "chair" position.

Mimicking the side profile when the chair back is flipped for the stairs. The armrests needed to be shortened so that they would not hit the leg when the steps are used.

OK. I don't own a table saw. I am not recommending the use of your garage door rails as a hoist.

I worked with a large approx 14/4 slab of cherry. There were 5 different pieces for the sides of the chair. The final side thickness is 1 3/8". The left and right pieces were cut as one, shaped and sanded, and then ripped in half  to have a corresponding left and right.

This template jig prevented the blade from wandering too far off course. This type of jig has been described in the various woodworking magazines. 

Following the rough cutting with the band saw, the pieces were cleaned up with a spokeshave and then sanded.

I went with angled mortises rather than angled tenons. You can look at other sites about that debate. Sometimes the tenons were cut freehand, other times I used my Stanley 55 saw plane.

The key lesson for these joints:
When I found myself scratching my head too long to figure out something, it was just easier to go old school. Our eyes, along with a bevel gauge, are more accurate than we can sometimes imagine.  7° was my working angle.

Here was my first significant boneheaded blunder. These hinges will help the back part of the chair flip over the front legs to expose the steps. Unfortunately, the hinge central axis as well as the rear of the front leg at the level of the hinge needed to be parallel to the rear of the front rail.  Why? While the hinge works smoothly before assembly, when the right and left hinges are installed and the chair is assembled, the angle of hinges will try to force the rails outward as the chair is converted to the steps. 

Note the difference after fixing things up a bit..
The central axis of the hinges are now colinear with the rear of the front seat rail.

Note that the side rail is not shaped until the mortise and tenons are completed.

Chair swung open in "steps" mode.

A router jig to create the mortise and tenons was used for many of the smaller pieces that support the treads of the steps.

Stair treads made of maple

I finally got to use my coach-makers router to fashion the grooves for the panel.

At this point, I had not glued anything in place.

This shows the mortise for the hinge. Since screws go into end grain, dowels were placed just deep to the mortise so that the screw can  have more grab. The second screw goes through a tenon.

 The side rails and other components are shaped . Then glue up is completed. Further finer shaping was performed with rasps and files after glue up.  Quirk beads are made with a scratch stock in a fairly tedious manner. The beads were worked on before gluing and then further finessed after gluing. Some issues with short grain tearout with the beading occurred as the upper rear of armrest joins the rear leg. The volutes were fashioned on lathe and applied to recessed holes.

This is the improvised locking mechanism when the chair-steps is used as a chair. The plate is located on the upper surface of the first step. There is a brass threaded insert in the larger hole. To lock the chair, the threaded brass pin runs through a brass lined hole on the fourth step (which sits on top of the first step) and the engages the insert. The original 1811 model used a lever under the first step with a hook that latched into a plate on the fourth step above.

The "emblem" is a standardized 1" golf ball marker recessed flush to the surface with a magnetic backing which can be easily exchanged. 

Maple steps with diamond inlay.

Note the 5th leg added under the center stretcher.

Ackermann's Repository , July 1811