Tuesday, December 31, 2013

Rule Joint With The Stanley 55 Plane

A drop-leaf table typically contains a joint that is aesthetically appealing both when the leaf is up or dropped down. The table top contains a 90° ovolo with a fillet along the top edge. The drop-leaf contains a 90° cavetto (cove) with a fillet along the top edge. This joint, known as a rule joint or table joint, has the appearance of a 90° ovolo with flanking fillets when the leaf is down.  When the leaf is up, the rule-joined leaves and table top are visible only as a thin line. The hinges, which are mortised into the undersurface, are concealed by the joint throughout its range.

A rule joint, from A Manual of Carpentry and Joinery, by J. W.  Riley, 1905.

The left board represents the drop -leaf and the right piece represents the edge of the table.

A rule joint can be fashioned in several ways using:
  • A combination of a rabbet plane and hollow and rounds
  • A dedicated set of rule joint planes
  • A shaper/router (pedal or electric)
Bill Anderson demonstrates clearly the traditional methods of using dedicated rule joint planes or hollow and rounds in an episode of The Woodwright's Shop called Table Joints Rule as well as the finicky process of layout and placement of the rule joint hinge.

Never trying to give up on the variety of uses of the Stanley 55 plane, I gave the rule joint a try with the "55". If you do not own or have handled this plane, you may have trouble following these instructions.

For the first attempt, I made a custom cutter from a leftover cutter to make the cove portion. To fashion the cutter, a bit of geometry is needed. See this post for details. After some fiddling, I realized that my custom cutter was so close to my existing No. 62 profile that I shouldn't have wasted my time on the custom cutter.  So, just grab your Stanley 55's cutter number 62 to create the ovolo and cutter 38 to create the cove. 

Stanley 55 cutters, #38 on the left and # 62 on the right

Make the ovolo first by placing the board with the top surface facing you in your vise and setting the #62 cutter for a fine cut. Use both fences, both main runners and the auxiliary center. The right side of the blade (where the notch on the cutter is located) should be located about 1 mm inside of the edge of a 3/4" board so that the right depth stop can be used to create a consistent shape. Plane down until the that little 1mm fillet to the right of the blade is barely visible. Once this little fillet is spotted somewhere, stop and set your depth gauge flush with this fillet (for me it usually turns out to be on the far end). Then take a few more passes to even out the ovolo. 
Front end of the Stanley 55. Employ both fences and all 3 runners. Note the barely perceptible tiny fillet. The small fillet allows the use of the right depth stop. Alternatively the fillet could be avoided by using the left depth stop.

Your are then left with, from left to right (as viewed from the planer's view), an uncut segment, a small gap, the ovolo and a 1 mm barely perceptible  fillet. Knock down the uncut left segment with a rabbet or shoulder plane and the right mini fillet with a low angle block plane.

 You are then left with, from left to right, an uncut segment, a small gap, the ovolo and a 1 mm barely perceptible  fillet.

Removing uncut segment with a moving filletser plane. 

The final edge of the "table top". Ignore the sliding dovetail notch...this was a scrap piece.
For the cavetto, place your #38 cutter in the Stanley 55. You will notice that the main skate/runner sits in the center of this cutter. If your Stanley 55 has its left depth gauge, this is one of those rare times when you will need it. You will need to install the left gauge before the next step. Place the additional auxiliary center skate and left skate so that all three skates are abutting each other and adjust the depths of the skate for a fine cut. The depth of the fillet of the ovolo from the table top needs to be transferred to the leaf. Use a depth gauge to measure the distance from the table top surface to the top edge of the ovolo. Place your drop down leaf in the vise so that the top surface faces you. Transfer the depth of the fillet to the drop leaf. Then line up the left edge of the cutter with this mark. Plane down until you are close. By placing your ovolo piece into the cavetto piece, you will know how deep to make the cavetto. Adjust the left depth stop as needed. You may need to take a sliver or two off of the right edge with a block plane for a tight fit.

That should do it for the rule joint. Resurrect your 99% nickel-plated Stanley 55 out of its pristine minty box and try a rule joint.

The Stanley 55 loaded with the #38 cutter. About 2/5 of the cutter  on the side of the right fence (as seen on the left of this photo) will not be used for this operation.

The Stanley 55 making the cove for the drop-leaf. All decked out for the Holidays using both fences, all 3 skates and the all but forgotten left depth stop. The uncut portion should be the same dimension as the depth of the fillet atop the mating ovolo.

If the fit is good on these test pieces, save them as a template so that you can cut out a few of these steps if using another 3/4" board. You can set your fence positions and depth stops with these templates.

This ovolo, with fillet along the top edge, would be the edge of the fixed table top. Being satisfied with the fit, I saved this as a template for future rule joints.

The cavetto (cove) for the drop-leaf can be made with the #38 cutter or even the #113 cutter. 

Monday, November 25, 2013

The Stanley 55 Plane...More Than A Paperweight

If you have just pulled out your Stanley 55 universal hand plane from the depths of the harbor, wipe off the barnacles and find yourself a real boat anchor.  There is hope for the good old Stanley 55, and it can be used for its intended purpose as a hand plane to replace a whole tool chest of planes.

From the 1934 Stanley Catalog

Patented in 1894, the Stanley 55 was a prototype contraption of the Victorian era. The "55" was a progression (some would argue a regression) of the Stanley 45. The 45 was patented by Justus A. Traut in 1884. Traut worked with the Stanley Company from 1870 to1908.  With over 700 patents to his name, Traut's work left his mark on many of the improvements of Stanley planes which impact us as hand tool users to this day.

Patent for the Stanley 45
Patent for the Stanley

In 1893,  Eppie McCulloch patented a secondary fence which could be adjusted vertically to allow the use of angled or curved cutters.

Traut and Edmund Schade combined the ideas of the 45 and McCulloch's patent ( "Our present invention is in the nature of an improvement upon the inventions shown in Letters Patent No. 294,825, granted to Justus A. Traut March 11, 1884i,V and No. 505,119, granted to Eppie J. McCulloch September 19, 1893.") then added a right sided fence as well as a third runner plus numerous other smaller details to come up with the 55. Production of this plane ceased in 1962.

Stanley claimed that this all-in-one plane can plow, dado, rabbet, filletster, tongue and groove, bead, sash and slit. 

Are these claims true? 

I believe they are to some degree.  This tool shines when using it for short runs of moulding, either for replication of an existing moulding or for a one off new profile.  Unless you want to give up your membership to the gym, this tool is not a good choice for making a roomful of mouldings. So, the "planing mill" claim is a bit of a hyperbole. Notwithstanding its interchangeable cutters and the adjustable steel runner, the feature that sets this plane apart is the presence of dual fences. 

Many people who use this plane don't care much for the use of the right sided fence because it is one more thing to set up or the right side of the piece is on their workbench and the fence would bottom out. I agree with what the Stanley instructions say.  Use the right fence where possible. If you are making a run of mouldings, try to use a wide board and shape the mouldings with the 55 by placing the board in the vise to work the edge, then cut the moulding off the board. This is easier than ripping the stock to the correct dimension and then trying to clamp the stock in some way. In the event that you do not want to use a wide board working on its edge and are only working with a thin piece, you can lift the piece off the workbench with the modification below.

The small workpiece is clamped between two notched boards that are secured with T-bolts. The notched boards have small screws with their heads cut off in the notch to grab the workpiece. The workpiece needs to be wider than the notched holding boards to allow clearance of both the right and left fences.
Alternatively, you can screw or nail both ends of the work to a narrower board which can then be held in your vise. This is my preferred method when working with wider complex mouldings requiring multiple cutters. Essentially, the top face and both edges need to be free of any impediment.

The use of both fences prevents any straying off course of the plane, which is especially important when using profiles that slope down toward the left fence. Have you ever tried to widen a rabbet or groove to house a panel but found the groove to be a bit too narrow? You may have reached for your plow plane and attempted to widen the groove but found that you had inconsistent results. That is why they make side rabbet planes. Alternatively, you can take just a sliver off of a rabbet when using both fences of the 55, staying true to its line. The Stanley 55 instructions mention another method to keep the profile consistent, "By setting up the fence so as to leave a narrow strip of wood between the fence and the cutter...the plane will be much more easily held up to the work." After shaping the profile, you can then remove the small strip of material that served as a fence with a shoulder plane.

If you elect to use only the left fence and want to cinch the stock between two dogs on your workbench, you may run into the problem of not being able to get to the edge of the piece because it is not wide enough to overhang the edge of the workbench. This can be solved by using a sticking board. Here is my version.

Sticking board variation. The bottom board has two holes to accommodate the T bolts, while the top board/ fence has two slotted holes so that the fence can be adjusted for the width of the stock.  Although a bit in the way, if running long stock, the vise can be opened wider to allow the plane to pass through.  If creating a bead on the face of the board, the device can be used as a clamp as well.

A Lee Valley mortised bench stop.  The holes are from screw holes which I sometimes use to buttress the other end of the stock. 

The board to be "stuck" can overhang the edge a bit. The depth gauge can be referenced off of the fence.

Once you can setup the work using both fences, you're in good shape. Just try to go with the grain, have sharp cutters, and set your runners for a thin cut.

The thinner cutters work very well. The wider cutters can be a struggle. After sharpening each cutter, I tested it on a short board of pine. Highlighted in green are the cutters that were mostly trouble-free, yellow was a mild struggle (watch the grain direction and take thin passes) and red was tough (chatter and diving of the cutter even with the grain).  I have been able to use all of the cutters, but some clean up is needed on the wider cutters.

When adjusting the runners, point the front of the plane up and sight down along the runners.  Always place at least one runner at the lowest point of the cutter. All but a couple of cutters need more than one runner (skate).  Adjust the other runners to evenly ditribute them through the width of the cutter. There is also another  shoe that attaches to the auxiliary center skate  to give more surface area.  I have not needed this shoe too often. Note the camera angle grossly exaggerates the exposure of the cutter relative to the runner.

Here are some of the mouldings using many of the profile cutters:

Note that some linear marks from the runners can show up when using the larger cutters. These would need to be sanded down or cleaned up with a another plane.

Besides the shapes provided by the individual cutters, profiles can be combined to create an almost infinite number of possibilities. Even more variety (more than infinite?) can be had by angling the rosewood fence, similar to a spring angle for a wooden moulding plane.

Besides the 55 standard cutters, Stanley made an additional 41 special cutters with more sizes of quarter rounds,hollows, ogees and beading cutters.  You can even fashion your own cutters. I made matching quarter round and hollow cutters to create a rule joint for a drop leaf table by reshaping beat up duplicate cutters.

Saturday, November 23, 2013

Adjustable Sawtooth Shelving With Hand Tools

What methods were used to allow for adjustable shelves in antique casework?

In most bookcases of the 18th and early 19th century, shelves were fixed to the sides and not adjustable. When adjustable shelves were needed, the most common method was to have repeating dadoes or horizontal cleats. But, with this method, a face frame could not be used because it would hinder the removal of the shelf. I have not seen peg holes for this era furniture, but it would not surprise me if they were rarely used.

An unusual option is to make a sawtooth shelving support system (aka birdsmouth shelf support). I do not know when these were first used for sure (leave me a comment if you know). They are certainly seen on cabinets from the late 19th century. In fact, hand planes to create the sawtooth rack do exist from the late 1800's as seen in a couple of German tool catalogs. A gentleman by the name of Wolfgang Jordan describes another similar plane.
A No. 20 1/2 Zahnleistenhobel (translated as a Rack Plane) from the 1909 Joh. Weiss & Sohn
Alvin Sellens, in his Dictionary of American Hand Tools refers to these planes as bookcase planes or shelf rail planes.

Sawtooth shelf supports consist of a series of  ledges in a sawtooth configuration that houses a removable trapezoidal cleat. I glued a quarter round moulding to the cleat which gets wedged by the rabbet on the underside of the shelf to give the shelf more stability. (Note that the downside of this configuration is that the cleat is top heavy and can fall out if not supported by the shelf)

Not having found any information on the topic, here are the steps that I came up with to make the sawtooth system by hand.

The key is to work all four pieces together. First dimension the racks and mark them at a consistent interval.

Next, make a series of crosscuts of the same depth at the marks. A saw with a depth stop helps

Disston No. 14 duplex saw

After the crosscuts, mark diagonally from the bottom of one cut to the top of the adjacent cut.

At this point, you can clamp all four pieces together and use a large chisel or slick to make the diagonal notches. Alternatively, a miter jack provides more accuracy as shown below.

Once the support brackets are made, cut out the trapezoidal cleat to the exact width needed and you are done.